Phanerozoic Eon – Historical Present

A Short History of the World – from varying sources
4004 B.C. – 2008 A.D.

Updated when new information available. Current update: 10/04/2009.

Legend Color Guide
Geological Time In Descending Order:
 Eons = Cyan | Eras = Dark Green | Periods = Magenta | Epochs = Blue | Stages = Orange | Major Geological Events = Heavy Black Underlined | Cataclysmic Events = Bold Red Underlined |
Note: Some very early ages overlap or have conflicting dates, because different authorities have placed them or named them differently at different times.
Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI)
Orders of Magnitude. Multiplier = 10: (VEI 6) = (10 X VEI 5):
 Large (Mt. St. Helens) = 5 | Terrific = 6 | Colossal = 7 | Gigantic = 8 | Cataclysmic (Super Volcano) 9 and above |
Culture Time
 Culture Periods = Brown | Not Generally Recognized Events and History = Magenta | Anomalies = Dark Green | Recognized Events and History = Plain Black |

Major Events

Modern Age (Recorded Human History)
• 4004 B.C. – • The Present Date

• October 23, 4004 B.C. – Date given by the Archbishop Ussher for the Biblical creation date of the Earth. 10/04/2009

• 3800 B.C. – Urban civilization begins in Sumer as the Anunnaki reestablish there the Olden Cities, beginning with Eridu and Nippur. Anu comes to Earth for a pageantful visit. A new city, Uruk (Erech), is built in his honor; he makes its temple the abode of his beloved granddaughter Inanna/lshtar. (Z.S.)

III. Kingship on Earth
• 3760 B.C. – Mankind granted kingship. Kish is first capital under the aegis of Ninurta. The calendar begun at Nippur. Civilization blossoms out in Sumer (the First Region). (Z.S.)

• 3760 B.C. – Jewish calendar begins

• 3680 B.C. – Pago (New Britain) Eurpts
   Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) = 6

• 3580 B.C. – Taal, Luzon (Philippines) Erupts
   Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) = 6

• 3550 B.C. – Pinatubo, Luzon (Philippines) Erupts
   Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) = 6

• 3500 B.C. – Sumerian Civilization begins (Sumeria)

• 3450 B.C. – Primacy in Sumer transferred to Nannar/Sin. Marduk proclaims Babylon “Gateway of the Gods.” The ‘Tower of Babel’ incident. The Anunnaki confuse Mankind’s languages. His coup frustrated, Marduk/Ra returns to Egypt, deposes Thoth, seizes his younger brother Dumuzi who had betrothed Inanna. Dumuzi accidentally killed; Marduk imprisoned alive in the Great Pyramid. Freed through an emergency shaft, he goes into exile. (Z.S.)

• 3300 B.C. – Period of multiple impacts from astroids – oceanic impact events and associated mega-tsunamis: from historical Mayan records, ice core records and tsunami records. 12/11/2012

• 3100 B.C. – 350 years of chaos end with installation of first Egyptian Pharaoh in Memphis. Civilization comes to the Second Region. (Z.S.)

• 3100 B.C. – Upper and Lower Egypt united into a single political kingdom – age of relative political stability and continuity.

• 3000 B.C. – • 2650 B.C. – Egyptian Early Dynastic Period (Egypt Official)

• 3000 B.C. – ANOMALY: A 5,000 years old map of the moon found carved into stone at one of Ireland’s most ancient and mysterious Neolithic sites
   The passage tomb at Knowth, County Meath. There was no recorded map of the Moon older than about 500 years.

• 2900 B.C. – Kingship in Sumer transferred to Erech. Inanna given dominion over the Third Region; the Indus Valley Civilization begin. (Z.S.)

• 2800 B.C. – • 1900 B.C. – Early Bronze Age

• 2800 B.C. – • 2300 B.C. – The Old Sumerian Period (Sumeria)

• 2,800 B.C. – • 2500 B.C. – There was a 300-year long colder phase that resembled the Intra-Eemian cooling event.

• 2700 B.C. – The Epic of Gilgamesh (Sumeria)

• 2650 B.C. – • 2150 B.C. – Egyptian Old Kingdom (Egypt Official)

• 2650 B.C. – • 2575 B.C. – Egyptian Dynasty 3: Zoser, Huni (Egypt Official)

• 2650 B.C. – Sumer’s royal capital shifts about. Kingship deteriorates. Enlil loses patience with the unruly human multitude. (Z.S.)

• 2627 B.C. – • 2000 B.C. – (Radiocarbon dates). Caral, Peru – Pyamids built. Oldest known/excavated city. Complex covers 160 acres, includes 6 large platform mounds (pyramids), many smaller platform mounds, two sunken circular plazas, and diverse architectural features including residential districts. No fortifications, no defenses, no weapons or signs of war of any kind found. Ref: Caral: Oldest City in the New World 12/22/2005

• 2600 B.C. – • 2480 B.C. – (Radiocarbon dates). The Great Pyramid built – traditional dates or • 2523 B.C. 12/22/2005
   Dynasty 5 (circa) Pyramid Texts are the earliest recorded account of the Osiris Legend.

• 2575 B.C. – • 2465 B.C. – Egyptian Dynasty 4: Snoferu, Khufu, Khafre, Menkaura, Shepseskaf, Queen Khentikaus (Egypt Official).

• 2575 B.C. – • 2134 B.C. – The Great Sphinx was built – traditional date.
   The Great Sphinx was built by Khafre as well as many other huge statues. The start of the construction of the Great Pyramid by Khufu is recorded at • 2523 B.C. via a scribed mark on the wall of the descending passage.

• 2465 B.C. – • 2325 B.C. – Egyptian Dynasty 5: Userkaf, Sahure, Neferirkara, Unas (Egypt Official).
   The last king of the Fifth Dynasty, Unas, covered the walls of the internal chambers of his pyramid with vertical columns of hieroglyphs. These are the Pyramid Texts; a series of magical spells and utterances based on solar and Osirion religious beliefs. They seek to ensure a prosperous afterlife for the King. So powerful was the magic of the written word that its presence alone made the expressed thought a future reality.

• 2400 B.C. – Vedic culture in India already had a sophisticated system of astronomy.

• 2371 B.C. – Inanna falls in love with Sharru-Kin (Sargon). He establishes new capital city. Agade (Akkad). Akkadian empire launched. (Z.S.)

• 2316 B.C. – Aiming to rule the four regions, Sargon removes sacred soil from Babylon. The Marduk-Inanna conflict flares up again. It ends when Nergal, Marduk’s brother, journeys from south Africa to Babylon and persuades Marduk to leave Mesopotamia. (Z.S.)

• 2300 B.C. – • 2150 B.C. – The Akkadian Period (Sumeria)

• 2291 B.C. – Naram-Sin ascends the throne of Akkad. Directed by the warlike Inanna, he penetrates the Sinai peninsula, invades Egypt. (Z.S.)

• 2255 B.C. – Inanna usurps the power in Mesopotamia; Naram-Sin defies Nippur. The Great Anunnaki obliterate Agade. Inanna escapes. Sumer and Akkad occupied by foreign troops loyal to Enlil and Ninurta. (Z.S.)

• 2220 B.C. – Sumerian civilization rises to new heights under enlightened rulers of Lagash. Thoth helps its king Gudea build a ziggurat-temple for Ninurta. (Z.S.)

• 2200 B.C. – Hittites (Sanskrit speakers) – in Middle East at least this early.

• 2193 B.C. – Terah, Abraham’s father, born in Nippur into a priestly-royal family. (Z.S.)

• 2180 B.C. – Egypt divided; followers of Ra/Marduk retain the south; Pharaohs opposed to him gain the throne of lower Egypt. (Z.S.)

• 2170 B.C. – • 2144 B.C. – The pole star is Alpha Draconis.
   The start of the construction of the Great Pyramid is recorded at c. • 2170 B.C. via a scribed mark on the wall of the descending passage.

• 2150 B.C. – • 2040 B.C. – Egyptian First Intermediate Period (Egypt Official)

• 2130 B.C. – As Enlil and Ninurta are increasingly away, central authority also deteriorates in Mesopotamia. Inanna’s attempts to regain the kingship for Erech does not last. (Z.S.)

• 2123 B.C. – Abraham born in Nippur. (Z.S.)

IV The Fateful Century
• 2113 B.C. – Enlil entrusts the Lands of Shem to Nannar; Ur declared capital of new empire. Ur- Nammmu ascends throne, is named Protector of Nippur. A Nippurian priest-Terah, Abraham’s father – comes to Ur to liaison with its royal court. (Z.S.)

• 2100 B.C. – • 2000 B.C. – The Neo-Sumerian Period (Sumeria)

• 2096 B.C. – Ur-Nammu dies in battle. The people consider his untimely death a betrayal by Anu and Enlil. Terah departs with his family for Harran. (Z.S.)

• 2095 B.C. – Shulgi ascends the throne of Ur, strengthens imperial ties. As empire thrives, Shulgi falls under charms of Inanna, becomes her lover. Grants Larsa to Elamites in exchange for serving as his Foreign Legion. (Z.S.)

• 2080 B.C. – Theban princes loyal to Ra/Marduk press northward under Mentuhotep I. Nabu, Marduk’s son, gains adherents for his father in Western Asia. (Z.S.)

• 2055 B.C. – On Nannar’s orders, Shulgi sends Elamite troops to suppress unrest in Canaanite cities. Elamites reach the gateway to the Sinai peninsula and its Spaceport. (Z.S.)

• 2050 B.C. – Ur was destroyed by the Elamites

• 2048 B.C. – Shulgi dies. Marduk moves to the Land of the Hittites. Abraham ordered to southern Canaan with an elite corps of cavalrymen. (Z.S.)

• 2047 B.C. – Amar-Sin (the biblical Amraphel) becomes king of Ur. Abraham goes to Egypt, stays five years, then returns with more troops. (Z.S.)

• 2041 B.C. – Guided by Inanna, Amar-Sin forms a coalition of Kings of the East, launches military expedition to Canaan and the Sinai. Its leader is the Elamite Khedor-la’omer. Abraham blocks the advance at the gateway to the Spaceport. (Z.S.)

• 2040 B.C. – • 1640 B.C. – Egyptian Middle Kingdom (Egypt Official)

• 2040 B.C. – Long Island (Northeast of New Guinea) Erupts
   Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) = 6

• 2038 B.C. – Shu-Sin replaces Amar-Sin on throne of Ur as the empire disintegrates. (Z.S.)

• 2029 B.C. – Ibbi-Sin replaces Shu-Sin. The western provinces increasingly to Marduk. (Z.S.)

• 2024 B.C. – Leading his followers, Marduk marches on Sumer, enthrones himself in Babylon. Fighting spreads to central Mesopotamia. Nippur’s Holy of Holies is defiled. Enlil demands punishment for Marduk and Nabu; Enki opposes, but his son Nergal sides with Enlil. As Nabu marshals his Canaanite followers to capture the Spaceport, the Great Anunnaki approve of the use of nuclear weapons. Nergal and Ninurta destroy the Spaceport and the errant Canaanite cities. (Z.S.)

• 2023 B.C. – The winds carry the radioactive cloud to Sumer. People die a terrible death, animals perish, the water is poisoned, the soil becomes barren. Sumer and its great civilization lie prostrate. Its legacy passes to Abraham’s seed as he begets – at age 100 – a legitimate heir: Isaac. (Z.S.)
   (All of (Z.S.) was taken from Zecharia Sitchin’s Earth Chronicles.)

• 2000 B.C. – • 1600 B.C. – The Old Babylonian Period (Sumeria)

• 1900 B.C. – • 1600 B.C. – Middle Bronze Age

• 1900 B.C. – Black Peak, Alaska Peninsula (USA) Erupts
   Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) = 6

• 1890 B.C. – Hudson, Cerro (Southern Chile) Erupts
   Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) = 6

• 1860 B.C. – St. Helens, Washington (USA) Erupts
   Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) = 6

• 1750 B.C. – Veniaminof, Alaska Peninsula, Alaska (USA) Erupts
   Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) = 6

• 1645 B.C. – Aniakchak, Alaska Peninsula, Alaska (USA) Erupts
   Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) = 6

• 1640 B.C. – • 1550 B.C. – Egyptian Second Intermediate Period (Egypt Official)

• 1610 B.C – Santorini (Greece) Erupts
   Clouds to 36 kilometers. 30 cubic kilometers of ash (possibily100
   Ash fell over a large area in the eastern Mediterranean, Egypt and Turkey.
   The eruption probably caused the end of the Minoan civilization on the island of Crete.
   Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) = 7.

• 1600 B.C. – • 1000 B.C. – Late Bronze Age

• 1600 B.C. – Taupo (New Zealand) Erupts
   Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) = 6

• 1595 B.C. – Hittites invade Sumeria and nothing much known of next 500 years. (Sumeria).

• 1550 B.C. – • 1,070 B.C. – Egyptian New Kingdom (Egypt Official)
   Mt. Horeb, the mountain on which Moses is said to have received the Ten Commandments.

• 1453 B.C. – The Egyptian Captivity ends (Exodus)

• 1420 B.C. – Pago (New Britain) Erupts
   Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) = 6

• 1400 B.C. – First Sphinx Restoration begins (Egypt Official)
   Pharaoh Seti I, part of his Great Temple at Abydos during the Nineteenth Dynasty, around • 1,300 B.C.

• 1196 B.C. – • 1070 B.C. – Egyprian Dynasty 20 Rameses III (Egypt Official).
   Egypt invades Judea, takes Ark to Djaharya in the Dead Sea area, builds temple to receive Ark and contents, places stones of Commandments under the temple corner – Michael Sanders

• 1070 B.C. – • 712 B.C. – Egyptian Third Intermediate Period (Egypt Official)

• 1050 B.C. – Pinatubo, Luzon (Philippines) Erupts
   Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) = 6

• 945 B.C. – • 712 B.C. – Egyptian Dynasty 22 Shoshenq I = ‘Shishak’ of the Bible. (Egypt Official).

• 924 B.C. – Ark taken from the Temple in Jerusalem by the Egyptian Pharaoh Shishak. (Disproven)

• 800 B.C. – Greeks recorded there was a great south land they called ‘Ausio.’

• 712 B.C. – • 332 B.C. – Egyptian Late Period (Egypt Official)

• 700 B.C. – • 200 B.C. – First large cities in China (population 250,000).

• 587 B.C. – The Babylonian Captivity
   Babylonian ruler Nebuchadnezzar burned the Temple and took Ark of the Covenant. (Jewish Tradition).

• 500 B.C. – • 400 B.C. – Jewish Captivity ends.

• 410 B.C. – Jewish temple at Elephantine, Egypt destroyed.

• 332 B.C. – Egypt conquered by Alexander the Great.

• 250 B.C. – Raoul Island, Kermadec Islands Erupts
   Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) = 6

• 240 B.C. – The 2,000 ton ship Syracusia built.

• 150 B.C. – Crates of Mallos built 3.3 meter globe showing four continents divided by two great oceans – Oecumene = Asia/Europe/Africa, Perioeci = North America, Antipodes = South America, Antoeci = Australia or Ausio, the great south land of milk and honey to the Greeks.

• 129 B.C. – Hipparchus calculated, within six and a half minutes, the length of a year. He figured out that Earth’s axis wobbles as it spins. For his star catalog, completed in • 129 B.C., he devised a coordinate system to plot each star’s location and a scale to rank the brightness. Astronomers still use this magnitude scale today. The Farnese Atlas globe has horizontal lines for the Equator, the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn, and the Arctic and Antarctic Circles.

• 100 B.C. – Okmok, Aleutian Islands, Alaska (USA) Erupts
   Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) = 6

• 90 B.C. – First mechanical computer invented by unknown Greek – for navigation. Also the Antikythera Mechanism – may be the world’s oldest computer, used by the Greeks to predict the motion of the planets… the device indicates a technical sophistication that would not be replicated for millennia and may also be based on principles of a heliocentric, or sun-centred, universe – a view of the cosmos that was not accepted by astronomers until the Renaissance. Ref: The Antikythera Mechanism Rsearch Project 06/07/2006

• 64 B.C. – Roman occupation of Palestine begins.

• 47 – • 48 A.D. – Julius Caesar attacked Alexandria, accidently destroyed Great Library. Last remaining Old World repository of knowledge from previous civilizations.

• 6 B.C. – Probable date for birth of historical Jesus.

Now. The Historical Present
The Present Age – Earth Land Mass Construction

• 0 A.D. – Carbon-14 Spike

• 50 A.D. – Ambrym, Vanuatu, (Fiji Islands) Erupts
   Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) = 6 +

• 60 A.D. – Churchill (Eastern Alaska) (USA) Erupts
   Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) = 6

• 180 A.D. – Taupo (New Zealand) Erupts
   Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) = 7

• 240 A.D. – Ksudach, Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) Erupts
   Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) = 6

• 426 A.D. – Dark Ages (Middle Ages) Begins

• 450 A.D. – Ilopango (El Salvador) Erupts
   Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) = 6

• 540 A.D. – Rabaul, Papua (New Guinea) Erupts
   300 million tons of aerosols.
   Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) = 6.

• 700 A.D. – Churchill, Eastern Alaska (USA) Erupts
   Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) = 6

• 700 A.D. – The Vikings begin their raids on England and the rest of Europe.

• 710 A.D. – Pago (New Britain)
   Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) = 6.

• 800 A.D. – • 1300 A.D. – The Medieval Warm Period
   Partially coincides in time with the peak in solar activity named the Medieval Maximum. Confirmed by analysis of staligmite SPA-12 (central Alps cave).

• 800 A.D. – Dakataua (New Britain)
   Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) = 6.

• 930 A.D. – Ceboruco (Mexico) Erupts
   Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) = 6

• 980 A.D. – Vikings settle in Greenland.

• 1000 A.D. – Baitoushan (Eastern China) Erupts
   Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) = 7

Leif Ericson establishes colony on Newfoundland, Canada. 02/25/2006

• 1050 A.D. – Viking raids end. 09/19/2008

• 1150 A.D. – Little Ice Age (First Peak) Begins – • 1150 A.D. – • 1850 A.D.

• 1215 A.D. – The Magna Carta document is adopted in England, guaranteeing liberties to the English people, and proclaiming basic rights and procedures which later become the foundation stone of modern democracy. 02/25/2006

• 1259 A.D. – Very large eruption, Origin Unknown. Twice the size of the Mt.Tambora eruption in • 1815 A.D. – this would make a Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) = 8 or more; possibly qualifying as a Super Volcanic Eruption.
   Antarctica ice core data; Norwegian tree rings; England and Europe – numerous references to dark skies and unseasonable cold, one obscure reference to pillar of fire in western sky; Chinese reference to pillar of fire in southern sky; Indonesian description – near Krakatau – magma rose in a miles wide column into the troposphere lasting for some days before subsiding, according to references.

   National Geographic (TV) ran a piece a year or more back on a group of scientists attempting to verify this eruption with hard evidence. They tried to get to the likely island by small plane, but the turbulence was too severe. Next they tried by ship. Landing their skiff on a sandy beach, the photographer filmed the surrounding areas while the scientist went to collect rock samples. Suddenly, tremors began and as they increased in severity, everyone rushed back to the skiff and departed. 09/21/2008

   There was an explosive eruption hurling boulders into the air, narrowly missing their ship as it was underway. When things calmed down, they returned. On the very spot the photographer was filming earlier, there was a 10 foot boulder. Tremors began again. They left without any samples, just photographs and films, unfortunately proving nothing. It is simply too dangerous an area to study. The truth of the matter will remain a mystery. 09/21/2008

• 1280 A.D. – Quilotoa (Ecuador) Erupts
   Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) = 6

• 1330 A.D. – The Black Death, aka The Bubonic Plague began in China. 09/19/2008

• 1347 A.D. – The Black Death spreads to Europe.
   By 1441 A.D., an estimated 25-50 million Europeans are dead (or one third to one half of the population).
A children’s rhyme from those times:

Ring around the rosy,
A pocket full of posies,
Ashes … ashes,
We all fall down.


• 1400 A.D. – 25 million additional deaths were attributed to the Plague, bringing the total to 100 million dead. 09/19/2008

• 1430 A.D. – The last of the Vikings vanish from Greenland. 09/19/2008

• 1452 A.D. – Kuwae, Vanuatu, New Hebrides Arc Erupts
   Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) = 6.

• 1460 A.D. – Little Ice Age (First Peak) Ends

• 1492 A.D. – Spanish landfall in Americas. Numerous civilizations were destroyed, native populations were decimated or exterminated. During the next 400 hundred years, Christian zealots destroy last remaining knowledge base which survived in Americas.

• 1497 A.D. – John Cabot of England explores the Atlantic coast of Canada, claiming the area for the English King, Henry VII. Cabot is the first of many European explorers to seek a Northwest Passage (northern water route) to Asia. 02/25/2006

• 1498 A.D. – Dark Ages (Middle Ages) End
   Girolamo Savonarola put to death by Church. 02/24/2006

• 1499 A.D. – Italian navigator, Amerigo Vespucci, sights the coast of South America during a voyage of discovery for Spain. 02/25/2006

• 1513 A.D. – Ponce de Leon lands at Folrida, U.S.A. 02/25/2006

• 1517 A.D. – Martin Luther launches the Protestant Reformation in Europe, bringing an end to the sole authority of the Catholic Church, resulting in the growth of numerous Protestant religious sects. 02/25/2006

• 1519 A.D. – Hernando Cortes conquers the Aztec empire. 02/25/2006

• 1519 A.D. – • 1522 A.D. – Ferdinand Magellan is the first person to sail around the world. 02/25/2006

• 1524 A.D. – Giovanni da Verrazano lands in the Carolinas, sails north and discovers the Hudson River, and Narragansett Bay and Nova Scotia. 02/25/2006

• 1541 A.D. – Hernando de Soto of Spain discovers the Mississippi River. 02/25/2006

• 1560 A.D. – Little Ice Age (Second Peak) Begins

• 1565 A.D. – The first permanent European colony in North America is founded at St. Augustine (Florida) by the Spanish. 02/25/2006

• 1580 A.D. – Billy Mitchell, Bougainville Island Erupts
   Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) = 6

• 1586 A.D. – Colony at Roanoke, Virgina U.S.A founded. 02/25/2006

• 1588 A.D. – Spanish Armada defeated by the English. 02/25/2006

• 1600 A.D. (Feb 19) – Huaynaputina (Peru) Erupts
   Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) = 6

• 1607 A.D. – Jamestown, Virginia, U.S.A. founded. 02/25/2006

• 1620 A.D. – Pilgrims land at Plymouth, Mass. U.S.A. 02/25/2006

• 1629 A.D. – In England, King Charles I dissolves parliament and attempts to rule as absolute monarch, spurring many to leave for the American colonies. 02/25/2006

• 1640 A.D. – • 1659 A.D. – English Civil War erupts between the Royalists of King Charles I and the Parliamentary army. 02/25/2006

• 1650 A.D. – Little Ice Age coldest temperatures reached
Archbishop Ussher published the Ussher chronology, a chronology dating the creation to the night preceding October 23 4004 B.C. Ref: Young Earth Creationism10/04/2009

• 1660 A.D. – Long Island (Northeast of New Guinea) Erupts
   Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) = 6

• 1675 A.D. -• 1676 A.D. – King Philip’s War erupts in New England between colonists and Native Americans as a result of tensions over colonist’s expansionist activities. 02/25/2006

• 1682 A.D. – French explorer La Salle explores the lower Mississippi Valley region and claims it for France, naming the area Louisiana for King Louis XIV.
   A large wave of immigrants, including many Quakers, arrives in Pennsylvania from Germany and the British Isles. 02/25/2006

• 1685 A.D. – Protestants in France lose their guarantee of religious freedom as King Louis XIV revokes the Edict of Nantes, spurring many to leave for America. 02/25/2006

• 1776 A.D. – The American Revolution begins. 02/25/2006

• 1789 A.D. – The French Revelution begins. 02/25/2006

• 1792 A.D. – First commercial use of gas lighting begins.

• 1815 A.D. – Mount Tambora Erupts
   Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) = 7. (100x greater than Mt. St Helens)
   150 cubic kilometers of rock, 200 million tons of aerosols, Year without a Summer – largest explosive eruption in recent historic time.
   90,000 killed in first few minutes of the eruption, red and brown snow falls in Europe during the "Year Without Summer" or "1800 and Froze to Death". 02/24/2006

• 1846 A.D. – • 1850 A.D. Irish Potato Famine – 1,500,000 in Ireland die from typhus and starvation due to Arctic conditions during agricultural growing season. Mass emigration to America.

• 1850 A.D. – Little Ice Age (Second Peak) Ends
   Climate begins to warm world-wide.

• 1851 A.D. – First ship built simular tonnage to thr Greek ship Syracusia, built in • 250 B.C.

• 1859 A.D. – Drilling for petroleum oil begins.

• 1879 A.D. – First commercially successful incandescent lamp.

• 1883 A.D. (Aug 27) – Krakatau, Indonesia Erupts
   15+ cubic kilometres of ash, 50 million tons of aerosols.
   Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) = 6.

• 1902 A.D (Oct 24) – Santa Maria (Guatemala)
   Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) = 6.

• 1903 A.D. – First powered human flight.

• 1912 A.D. – Novarupta, Mount Katmai, Alaska (USA) Erupts
   30-35 cubic kilometres of ash, covered 120,000 square kilometres to greater than 1 centimeter depth. Pyroclastic flows traveled as far as 23 kilometres and filled a valley adjacent to the volcano to produce the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes.
   Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) = 6.

• 1945 A.D. – First use of nuclear weapons.

1958 A.D. – Project Orion Begun.
   Design and concept for nuclear explosion propelled vehicle. Concept, design and model built. System worked. Larger the better. Small 10,000 ton vehicle with crew of 150 planed, 40 million ton (Equivilant to 265 supersized oil ships) interstellar vehicle next. Motto: "Mars by 1965, Saturn by 1970". Would have cost the same or less than Apollo. See: Project Orion Video

• 1961 A.D. – Apollo Mission begins.

1964 A.D. – Project Orion Killed.
   Reasons: Government interagency infighting, NASA Apollo conflict, perceived treaty obligations, lack of political leadership.

"…the first time in modern history that a major expansion of human technology has been suppressed for political reasons." – Freeman Dyson.

• 1967 A.D. – The Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies went into force. Ratified by the US on Jan 1, 1967. 09/12/2009

Treaty Principles:

• the exploration and use of outer space shall be carried out for the benefit and in the interests of all countries and shall be the province of all mankind;
• outer space shall be free for exploration and use by all States;
• outer space is not subject to national appropriation by claim of sovereignty, by means of use or occupation, or by any other means;
• States shall not place nuclear weapons or other weapons of mass destruction in orbit or on celestial bodies or station them in outer space in any other manner;
• the Moon and other celestial bodies shall be used exclusively for peaceful purposes;
• astronauts shall be regarded as the envoys of mankind;
• States shall be responsible for national space activities whether carried out by governmental or non-governmental activities;
• States shall be liable for damage caused by their space objects; and
• States shall avoid harmful contamination of space and celestial bodies.

Jump-Starting the Space Program 09/12/2009

This treaty bans the use of nuclear weapons in outer space. More relevant to the future of space exploration, it also prohibits any nation from claiming ownership of any part of outer space. The treaty states that “outer space, including the moon and other celestial bodies, is not subject to national appropriation by claim of sovereignty, by means of use or occupation, or by any other means.” And that, in a nutshell, explains why few are interested in spending money to go there…

Although peaceful economic exploitation is not prohibited, in the absence of property rights a company or a country probably could not capitalize on a mineral discovery or the settlement of a planet. Further, the treaty specifies that all exploration and use of outer space “shall be carried out for the benefit and in the interests of all countries, irrespective of the degree of their economic or scientific development.” …

We’ve had 40 years of lackluster efforts to explore outer space because we have a treaty that eliminated the incentives for doing so…

• 1969 A.D. – First Manned Lunar Landing – Apollo 11
   Mare Tranquillitatis; Surface time = 21.5 hours.

• 1969 A.D. – Apollo 12
   Oceanus Procellarum; Surface time = 31.5 hours.

• 1970 A.D. – Worldwide travel by passenger jet planes common.

• 1971 A.D. – Apollo 14
   Fra Mauro; Surface time = 33.5 hours.

• 1971 A.D. – Apollo 15
   Hadley-Apennines; Surface time = 67 hours.

• 1972 A.D. – Apollo 16
   Descartes; Surface time = 71 hours.

• 1972 A.D. – Last Manned Lunar Landing – Apollo 17
   Taurus-Littrow; Surface time = 75 hours.

Apollo Summary:
   Number of men who landed on surface = 12.
   Apollo Program Total Cumulative Time on moon’s surface = 299.5 hr (12.48 days).

• 1980 A.D. – St. Helens, Washington (USA) Erupts
   1 cubic kilometer of ash.
    Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) = 5

• 1991 A.D. (Jun 15) – Pinatubo, Luzon (Philippines) Erupts
   5 cubic kilometres of rock and 15-30 million tons of sulfur dioxide gas. This eruption was the largest disturbance of the stratosphere since the eruption of Krakatau in 1883 (but ten times larger than Mount St. Helens in • 1980). In • 1992 and • 1993, the average temperature in the Northern Hemisphere was reduced 0.5 to 0.6C (deg.) and the entire planet was cooled 0.4 to 0.5C (deg.). The maximum reduction in global temperature occurred in August • 1992 with a reduction of 0.73 (deg.).
    Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) = 6

• 2000 A.D. – Worldwide use of cell phones, digital cameras, personal computers, and high-speed internet connections common.

• 2004 A.D. – First closeup images of Saturn’s moon(?) Iapetus received from Cassini-Huygens Mission.
   Perfectly circular orbit, inclined 15 deg; Flat angluar surfaces; Range 12+ mile high and wide ringing exact equator; Density slighly higher than water; Surface covered with unknown organic compound; Cratering extreme, regular, hexagonal; and Radar returns undifferentiated.
   See: – Saturn’s Moon Iapetus.

• 2008 A.D. – (August). Despite wide-spread hysteria over Global Warming, the Sun, for the first time in recorded obsevations, has zero sunspots – sunspots are upwellings of hot plasma.
   The more sunspots there are, the warmer the surface of the sun, and consequently, the more heat falls on to the Earth’s surface. 09/19/2008

• 2008 A.D.

The intensity of the sun’s million-mile-per-hour solar wind has dropped to its lowest levels since accurate records began half a century ago, scientists say.

“With the solar wind at an all-time low, there is an excellent chance the heliosphere will diminish in size and strength,” said Ed Smith, NASA’s Ulysses project scientist at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California.

“If that occurs, more galactic cosmic rays will make it into the inner part of our solar system,” added Smith.

Scientists say the weakening of solar wind appears to be due to changes in the sun’s magnetic field, but the causes of these changes are unknown.

More on this effect from:
The Svensmark Effect 09/28/2008

Compiled by PIF

  1. The Precambrian Eon: 4,567,170,000 B.C. – 2,350,000,000 B.C.
  2. The Proterozoic Eon: 2,500,000,000 B.C. – 542,000,000 B.C.
  3. The Phanerozoic Eon – Palaeozoic Era: 542,000,000 B.C. – 142,000,000 B.C.
  4. The Phanerozoic Eon – Cretaceous Era: 142,000,000 B.C. – 71,300,000 B.C.
  5. The Phanerozoic Eon – Cenozoic Era: 66,000,000 B.C. – 2,000,000 B.C.
  6. The Phanerozoic Eon – Quaternary Period: 1,806,000 B.C. – 12,000 B.C.
  7. The Phanerozoic Eon – Holocene Epoch: 11,430 B.C. – 4128 B.C.
  8. The Phanerozoic Eon – Historical Present: 4000 B.C. – 2009 A.D.
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