Phanerozoic Eon – Cenozoic Era

A Short History of the World – from varying sources
66,000,000 B.C. – 1,810,000 B.C.

Updated when new information available. Current update: 02/03/2010.

Legend Color Guide
Geological Time In Descending Order:
 Eons = Cyan | Eras = Dark Green | Periods = Magenta | Epochs = Blue | Stages = Orange | Major Geological Events = Heavy Black Underlined | Cataclysmic Events = Bold Red Underlined |
Note: Some very early ages overlap or have conflicting dates, because different authorities have placed them or named them differently at different times.
Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI)
Orders of Magnitude. Multiplier = 10: (VEI 6) = (10 X VEI 5):
 Large (Mt. St. Helens) = 5 | Terrific = 6 | Colossal = 7 | Gigantic = 8 | Cataclysmic (Super Volcano) 9 and above |
Culture Time
 Culture Periods = Brown | Not Generally Recognized Events and History = Magenta | Anomalies = Dark Green | Recognized Events and History = Plain Black |

Major Events

Cenozoic Era (Age of Mammals)
• 66,000,000 B.C. – • The Present Date

Cenozoic Extinction
• 66,000,000 B.C.
   Toll: 16% of marine families, 47% of marine genera, 18% of land vertebrate families. 06/17/2005

66000000BC
• 66,000,000 B.C. – Earth Land Mass Reconstruction

• 66,000,000 B.C. – The Deccan India (Super Volcano – Basaltic Flow) Erupts
   512,000 cubic kilometers of magma (basaltic flow), more than 2,000 meters deep, covering an area as high as 1.5 million square kilometers, and are flood basalts similar to the Columbia River basalts of the northwestern United States. The Deccan basalt traps of India were then antipodal to the Chicxulub impact on the Yucutan Peninsula, Mexico.

• 65,500,000 B.C. – • 1,806,000 B.C. – Tertiary Informal Sub-Era

• 65,500,000 B.C. – • 23,030,000 B.C. – Paleogene Period (Early Tertiary Era)

• 65,500,000 B.C. – • 55,800,000 B.C. – The Paleocene Epoch

• 65,500,000 B.C. – • 61,700,000 B.C. – Early Paleocene Sub-Epoch
• 65,500,000 B.C. – • 62,500,000 B.C. – Puercan Stage (North American)
• 65,500,000 B.C. – • 61,700,000 B.C. – Danian Stage (ICS)
• 65,500,000 B.C. – • 56,500,000 B.C. – Teurian Stage (New Zealand)

• 61,700,000 B.C. – • 58,700,000 B.C. – Middle Paleocene Sub-Epoch
• 61,700,000 B.C. – • 58,700,000 B.C. – Selandian Stage (e2) (ICS)
• 61,500,000 B.C. – • 55,800,000 B.C. – Ynezian Stage (Californian)
• 61,700,000 B.C. – • 52,000,000 B.C. – Wangerripian Stage (Australian)

• 60,000,000 B.C. – ANOMALY: (Austria 1885) Cast Iron cube found in brown coal.

• 58,700,000 B.C. – • 55,800,000 B.C. Thanetian Stage (ICS)

• 55,800,000 B.C. – • 33,900,000 B.C. – Eocene Epoch

• 55,800,000 B.C. – • 48,600,000 B.C. – Early Eocene Sub-Epoch
• 55,800,000 B.C. – • 53,000,000 B.C. – Bulitian Stage (Californian)
• 55,800,000 B.C. – • 48,600,000 B.C. – Ypresian Stage (ICS)

• 55,500,000 B.C. – 54,800,000 B.C. – Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum
   The most significant periods of global change during the Cenozoic, a sudden global change, the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum, which upset oceanic and atmospheric circulation and led to the extinction of numerous deep-sea benthic foraminifera and on land, a major turnover in mammals. Marking the start of the Eocene, the planet heated up in one of the most rapid and extreme global warming events recorded in geologic history, currently being identified as the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum or the initial Eocene Thermal Maximum PETM or IETM. Sea surface temperatures rose almost 8 degrees Celsius over a period of a few thousand years.

(Note: Something akin to this appears to be occurring today with the so-called global warming. The conclusion, if this is accurate, would be that we are moving from the cusp of one geological time period to another. The question then would be: is the change relatively minor as from one Age to another, or major as moving from one Eon, Era, Period, or Epoch to another?)

• 55,500,000 B.C. – • 50,500,000 B.C. – Wasatchian Stage (North American)

• 55,500,000 B.C. ANOMALY: – Advanced stone tools found in California gold mines.
   The implements included spear points and stone mortars and pestles. They were found deep in mine shafts, beneath thick undisturbed layers of lava informations that geologists now say are from 9 million to more than 55 million years old. Tertiary deposits (33-55 million years old) under Table Mountain, Tuolumne County, California.

• 53,000,000 B.C. – • 51,000,000 B.C. – Penutian Stage (Californian)
• 52,000,000 B.C. – • 50,000,000 B.C. – Mangaorapan Stage (New Zealand)
• 52,000,000 B.C. – • 36,000,000 B.C. – Johannian Stage (Australian)

50200000BC
• 50,200,000 B.C. – Earth Land Mass Reconstruction

• 48,600,000 B.C. – • 37,200,000 B.C. – Middle Eocene Sub-Epoch
• 48,600,000 B.C. – • 40,400,000 B.C. – Lutetian Stage (ICS)
• 48,000,000 B.C. – • 35,000,000 B.C. – Narizian Stage (Californian)
• 47,000,000 B.C. – • 44,000,000 B.C. – Porangan Stage (New Zealand)
Ida Darwinius masillae, lemur like animal in Africa 10/22/2009
• 45,400,000 B.C. – • 40,000,000 B.C. – Uintan Stage (North American)
• 44,000,000 B.C. – • 40,000,000 B.C. – Bortonian Stage (New Zealand)
• 40,400,000 B.C. – • 37,200,000 B.C. – Bartonian Stage (ICS)
• 40,000,000 B.C. – • 37,200,000 B.C. – Kiaitan Stage (New Zealand)
• 40,000,000 B.C. – • 37,000,000 B.C. – Duchesnean Stage (North American)

• 40,000,000 B.C. ANOMALY: – (India 1844) Nail found in sandstone block.

• 37,200,000 B.C. – • 33,900,000 B.C. – Late Eocene Sub-Epoch
• 37,200,000 B.C – • 33,900,000 B.C. – Priabonian Stage (ICS)
• 37,000,000 B.C. – • 33,500,000 B.C. – Chadronian Stage (North American)
Afradapis longicristatus in northern Egypt related to lemurs and lorises 10/22/2009
• 36,000,000 B.C. – • 33,000,000 B.C. – Aldingian Stage (Australian)
• 35,000,000 B.C. – • 33,500,000 B.C. – Refugian Stage (Californian)

• 33,900,000 B.C. – • 23,030,000 B.C. – Oligocene Epoch

• 33,900,000 B.C. – • 28,400,000 B.C. – Early Oligocene Sub-Epoch
• 33,900,000 B.C. – • 28,000,000 B.C. – Whaingaroan Stage (New Zealand)
• 33,900,000 B.C. – • 28,400,000 B.C. – Rupelian Stage (ICS)

• 33,700,000 B.C. – ANOMALY: Large collection of paleoliths in Oligocene strata.

• 33,500,000 B.C. – • 32,000,000 B.C. – Orellan Stage (North American)
• 33,500,000 B.C. – • 22,000,000 B.C. – Zemorrian Stage (Californian)
• 32,000,000 B.C. – • 30,500,000 B.C. – Whitneyan Stage (North American)
• 30,500,000 B.C. – • 19,000,000 B.C. – Arikareean Stage (North American)
• 30,000,000 B.C. – • 27,500,000 B.C. – Janjukian Stage (Australian)

• 28,400,000 B.C. – • 23,030,000 B.C. – Late Oligocene Sub-Epoch
• 28,400,000 B.C. – • 23,030,000 B.C. – Chattian Stage (ICS)
• 28,000,000 B.C. – • 27,000,000 B.C. – Duntroonian Stage (New Zealand)

• 28,000,000 B.C. – • 26,000,000 B.C. – La Garita Caldera (Super Volcano) San Juan Mountains, Colorado, U.S. Erupts

   The eruption was, perhaps, the largest known explosive eruption in all of Earth’s history (the Siberian Traps may have been larger, but the cause is still being debated). The resulting deposit, known as the Fish Canyon Tuff, has a volume of about 1,200 cubic miles (5,000 km). The caldera is 35 by 75 kilometers (22 by 47 miles). Ref: La Garita Caldera 02/03/2010

• 27,500,000 B.C. – • 16,500,000 B.C. – Longfordian Stage (Australian)
• 27,000,000 B.C. – • 23,030,000 B.C. – Waitakian Stage (New Zealand)

• 23,030,000 B.C. – • 1,806,000 B.C. – Neogene Period (Late Tertiary)

• 23,030,000 B.C. – • 5,322,000 B.C. – Miocene Epoch

• 23,030,000 B.C. – • 15,970,000 B.C. – Early Miocene Sub-Epoch

• 23,030,000 B.C. – • 21,000,000 B.C. – Otaian Stage (New Zealand)
• 23,030,000 B.C. – • 20,430,000 B.C. – Aquitanian Stage (ICS)
• 22,000,000 B.C. – • 16,500,000 B.C. – Saucesian Stage (Californian)
• 21,000,000 B.C. – • 20,000,000 B.C. – Hutchinsonian Stage (New Zealand)

ANOMALY: • 21,000,000 B.C. – (U.S. 1865) Metal screw found in feldspar.

• 20,430,000 B.C. – • 15,970,000 B.C. – Burdigalian Stage (ICS)
• 20,000,000 B.C. – • 17,500,000 B.C. – Awamoan Stage (New Zealand)
• 19,000,000 B.C. – • 15,500,000 B.C. – Hemingfordian Stage (North American)
• 18.200,000 B.C. – • 15,970,000 B.C. – Haranoyan Stage (Japanese)
• 17,500,000 B.C. – • 16,500,000 B.C. – Altonian Stage (New Zealand)
• 16,500,000 B.C. – • 15,500,000 B.C. – Batesfordian (Australian)
• 16,500,000 B.C. – • 15,500,000 B.C. – Relizian Stage (Californian)
• 16,500,000 B.C. – • 15,000,000 B.C. – Cliffdenian Stage (New Zealand)

• 15,970,000 B.C. – • 11,608,000 B.C. – Middle Miocene Sub-Epoch
• 15,970,000 B.C. – • 13,650,000 B.C. – Langhian Stage (ICS)
• 15,970,000 B.C. – • 13,500,000 B.C. – Tozawan Stage (Japanese)
• 15,500,000 B.C. – • 11,800,000 B.C. – Barstovian Stage (North American)
• 15,500,000 B.C. – • 15,000,000 B.C. – Balcombian Stage (Australian)
• 15,500,000 B.C. – • 13,500,000 B.C. – Luisian Stage (Californian)
• 15,500,000 B.C. – • 11,800,000 B.C. – Barstovian Stage (North American)
• 15,000,000 B.C. – • 10,500,000 B.C. – Bairnsdalian Stage (Australian)
• 15,000,000 B.C. – • 11,500,000 B.C. – Lillburnian Stage (New Zealand)

14000000BC
• 14,000,000 B.C. – Earth Land Mass Reconstruction

• 14,000,000 B.C. – The Roza, Columbia River Basalt Group, Saddle Mountains, Idaho, Washington, Oregon, U.S. (Super Volcano – Basaltic Flow) Erupts
   1,500 cubic kilometers of magma came from this flow, covering an area of 40,300 square kilometers. Perhaps 6,000 million tons of aerosols. The area continued to erupt until the Early Pliocene. 09/13/2005

• 13,650,000 B.C. – • 11,608,000 B.C. – Serravallian Stage (ICS)
• 13,500,000 B.C. – • 7,500,000 B.C. – Mohnian Stage (Californian)
• 13,500,000 B.C. – • 11,100,000 B.C. – Kaburan Stage (Japanese)
• 11,800,000 B.C. – • 9,000,000 B.C. – Clarendonian Stage (North American)

• 11,608,000 B.C. – • 5,332,000 B.C. – Late Miocene Sub-Epoch
• 11,608,000 B.C. – • 7,246,000 B.C. – Tortonian Stage (n5) (ICS)
• 11,500,000 B.C. – • 10,000,000 B.C. – Waiauan Stage (New Zealand)
• 11,100,000 B.C. – • 9,500,000 B.C. – Fujian Stage (Japanese)
• 10,500,000 B.C. – • 5,000,000 B.C. – Mitchellian Stage (Australian)
• 10,000,000 B.C. – • 6,000,000 B.C. – Tongaporutuan Stage (New Zealand)
• 9,500,000 B.C. – • 3,600,000 B.C. – Yuian Stage (Japanese)
• 9,000,000 B.C. – • 4,750,000 B.C. – Hemphillian Stage (North American)
• 7,500,000 B.C. – • 2,900,000 B.C. – Delmontian Stage (Californian)
• 7,246,000 B.C. – • 5,332,000 B.C. – Messinian Stage (ICS)

• 7,000,000 B.C. – • 6,000,000 B.C. – Early possible human ancestor found in Chad a thousand kilometers to the west of other finds – Sahelanthropus tchadensis (Tourmai). A more direct line of ascent to modern humans than all other earlier finds. Looks more modern than Australopithecus afarensus.

• 6,000,000 B.C. – • 4,800,000 B.C. – Kapitean Stage (New Zealand)

• 6,000,000 B.C. – • 5,100,000 B.C. – Orrorin tugenensis

• 5,800,000 B.C. – • 4,400,000 B.C. – Ardipitecus ramidus in Ethopia

ANOMALY: Carlos Ribeiro found flint implements in the Tagus valley, Monte Redondo near Lisbon 1866-69. Sites are Early to Middle Miocene.
   Also about same time Abbe Louis Bourgeois reported finding stone implements in Tertiary beds in France.
   Similar discoveries come from various places around the world. They include stone tools from the Miocene of Burma (Noetling, 1894), stone tools and artistically carved animal bone from the Miocene of Turkey (Calvert, 1874), incised and carved animal bones from the Miocene of Europe (Garrigou and Filhol, 1868; von Ducker, 1873), stone tools from the Miocene of Europe (Bourgeois, 1873), stone tools and human skeletal remains from the Miocene of California (Whitney, 1880), and a human skeleton from the Miocene of France (de Mortillet, 1883:72).

ANOMALY: Also crude paleoliths found in Miocene formations – matched accepted Late Pleistocene tools.
   Discovery of Java man in 1860 redirected human evolutionary studies to later era.

• 5,332,000 B.C. – • 1,806,000 B.C. – Pliocene Epoch

• 5,332,000 B.C. – • 3,600,000 B.C. – Early Pliocene Epoch Sub-Epoch
• 5,320,000 B.C. – • 3,600,000 B.C. – Zanclean Stage (n7) (ICS)
• 5,000,000 B.C. – • 4,300,000 B.C. – Cheltenhamian Stage (Australian)

• 5,000,000 B.C. – Earth’s Magnetic Field Reverses

• 4,800,000 B.C. – • 3,600,000 B.C. – Opoitian Stage (New Zealand)
• 4,750,000 B.C. – • 1,806,000 B.C. – Blancan Stage (North American)

• 4,700,000 B.C. – • 1,800,000 B.C. – Australopithecus afarensis

• 4,400,000 B.C – Ardipithecus ramidus in Ehtiopia. Status: promoted to possible human ancestor. Ref: Oldest “Human” Skeleton Found – Disproves “Missing Link” 10/02/2009

• 4,300,000 B.C. – • 3,400,000 B.C. – Kalimnan Stage (Australian)

• 4,100,000 B.C – Australopithecus anamensis in Ehtiopia. 04/12/2006

• 4,000,000 B.C. – Middle Pliocene Epoch

• 4,000,000 B.C. – • 3,800,000 B.C. – Oldest biped skeleton, dating it to between 3.8 and 4 million years (species unnamed as yet)

ANOMALY: Investigations at Miramar, south of Buenos Aires found a series of stone implements, including bolas, and signs of fire.
   A commission of geologists confirmed the position of the implements in the Chapadmalalan formation, which modern geologists say is 3 to 5 million years old; found at Miramar a stone arrowhead firmly lodged in the femur of a Pliocene species of Toxodon, an extinct South American mammal – show the presence of anatomically modern man in South America over 3 million years ago.

ANOMALY: Anatomically modern human skull was found in Italy.
   The stratum from which it was taken is assigned to the Astian Stage of the Pliocene. According to modern authorities, the Astian belongs to the Middle Pliocene, which would give the skull an age of 3-4 million years.

ANOMALY: Eoliths found in England.
   Olduvai Gorge eoliths appear identical to the rejected European eoliths. Yet the scientific community accepts the Olduvai tools without question.

ANOMALY: Laetoli, Tanzania, in East Africa discovered footprints in deposits of volcanic ash more than 3,600,000 million years old.
   The prints were indistinguishable from those of modern human beings, said Mary Leakey and other scientists. To them this meant only that 3.6 million years ago our human ancestors had remarkably modern fee. However, australopithecines had feet that were distinctly apelike.

ANOMALY: Fossil bones of several Homo Sapiens Sapiens found in layers of Pliocene sediment 3 to 4 million years old.

• 3,600,000 B.C. – • 1,806,000 B.C. – Late Pliocene Sub-Epoch

• 3,600,000 B.C. – • 2,600,000 B.C. – Waipipian Stage (New Zealand)
• 3,600,000 B.C. – • 3,000,000 B.C. – Totomian Stage (Japanese)
• 3,600,000 B.C. – • 2,588,000 B.C. – Piacenzian Stage – [n8, Astian, Redonian, Romanian] (ICS)

• 3,500,000 B.C. – Kenyanthropus: • 3,500,000 B.C. – • 1,900,000 B.C.

• 3,400,000 B.C. – • 2,000,000 B.C. – Yatalan Stage (Australian)

• 3,300,000 B.C. – Earth’s Magnetic Field Reverses

• 3,200,000 B.C. – Australopithecus: Present in East Africa and South Africa. “Lucy” found – see Ref: What Was “Lucy”? Fast Facts on an Early Human Ancestor 10/02/2009

• 3,000,000 B.C. – • 1,900,000 B.C. – Suchian (Japanese)
• 2,900,000 B.C. – • 2,200,000 B.C. – Repettian (Californian)
• 2,600,000 B.C. – • 1,960,000 B.C. – Mangapanian (New Zealand)

• 2,600,000 B.C. – Homo Habilis: • 2,600,000 B.C. – • 1,700,000 B.C.

• 2,600,000 B.C. – • 2,000,000 B.C. – Highly sophisticated stone tools found, made with had a great technical knowledge. were either Australopithecus or an early species of modern human dated to • 2,340,000 B.C. The tools were made using highly controlled, percussion-driven motion, workers rarely made mistakes, and hammered out on an assembly line. Early Stone Age tool technologies overall were at a higher calibre than previously thought, and a relatively sophisticated activity from the time of its initial occurrence. 07/1/2005

• 2,588,000 B.C. – • 1,806,000 B.C. – Gelasian Stage (n9) (ICS)

• 2,500,000 B.C. – • 200,000 B.C. – Lower Paleolithic (Early Stone Age)

• 2,500,000 B.C. – Earth’s Magnetic Field Reverses

• 2,500,000 B.C. – • 1,800,000 B.C. – Homo Rudofolfenis

• 2,200,000 B.C. – • 1,900,000 B.C. – Venturian Stage (Californian)

• 2,200,000 B.C. – Paranthropus: • 2,200,000 B.C. – • 800,000 B.C.

• 2,100,000 B.C. – Yellowstone (Super Volcano) Huckleberry Ridge, Wyoming, U.S. Erupts
   2,500 cubic kilometres of ash

ANOMALY: Over the past few decades, scientists in Africa have uncovered fossil bones – apparently millions of years old – that look remarkably human.
   A surprisingly modern humerus (upper arm bone), ER 1481 femur (• 2,000,000 B.C.) – a thighbone, incised and broken animal bones and shells. Richard Leakey said the femur matches those of modern humans.

ANOMALY: Found stone tools, broken mammal bones, a human vertebra, and signs of fire in a Pliocene formation.

• 1,960,000 B.C. – • 1,100,000 B.C. – Nukumaruan Stage (New Zealand)
• 1,900,000 B.C. – • 1,500,000 B.C. – Kechienjian Stage (Japanese)
• 1,900,000 B.C. – • 11,430 B.C. – Wheelerian Stage (Californian)
• 1,810,000 B.C. – • 781,000 B.C. – Calabrian Stage (ICS)

Compiled by PIF

  1. The Precambrian Eon: 4,567,170,000 B.C. – 2,350,000,000 B.C.
  2. The Proterozoic Eon: 2,500,000,000 B.C. – 542,000,000 B.C.
  3. The Phanerozoic Eon – Palaeozoic Era: 542,000,000 B.C. – 142,000,000 B.C.
  4. The Phanerozoic Eon – Cretaceous Era: 142,000,000 B.C. – 71,300,000 B.C.
  5. The Phanerozoic Eon – Cenozoic Era: 66,000,000 B.C. – 2,000,000 B.C.
  6. The Phanerozoic Eon – Quaternary Period: 1,806,000 B.C. – 12,000 B.C.
  7. The Phanerozoic Eon – Holocene Epoch: 11,430 B.C. – 4128 B.C.
  8. The Phanerozoic Eon – Historical Present: 4000 B.C. – 2009 A.D.
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One Response to Phanerozoic Eon – Cenozoic Era

  1. Badger H.Bloomfield says:

    My discovery of ancient intricately carved face profiles on concreted stones{siltstone -chert -flint-greenstone.} are dated at 5-15 million years…by ..G.N.S,n.z..M.P.John Hayes-Te Papa -the late .Dr.Seddon Beddington. Yours Faithfully …Badger H.Bloomfield .Dannevirke .New Zealand ..

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